Host defenses that protect against infection include Natural barriers (eg, skin, mucous membranes), Nonspecific immune responses (eg, phagocytic cells [neutrophils, macrophages] and their products), Specific immune responses (eg, antibodies, lymphocytes). Host Defense mushrooms are genetic matches to species found in the wild. They are able to ensure this integrity by following a method developed by Paul called Certified P Value. P Value is a scientific system of measuring the generational age of each species to preserve genetic strength, and is key to providing fungal strains with the greatest efficacy and vitality. The higher P Value gets, strains degenerate and die out. Utilizing extremely low P Value, Host Defense uses the “original file” to produce mushrooms of exceptional genetic strength and integrity, close to their wild origins which means the active constituents are at very high levels.Host Defense is a Certified Organic food producer and processor. Their organic certificates are always available upon request.
Host Defense are the best-documented and longest certified organic mushroom company in the U.S. Host Defense products are chosen by physicians, naturopaths and other practitioners for efficacy with their patients.
Host Defense, owned by mycologist and author Paul Stamets, is the best all around source for immune supporting mushroom products and information. Host Defense Turkey Tail was chosen for a NIH (National Institutes of Health) study for supporting immune system health. Clinical studies show Host Defense Chaga is superior in antioxidant effects, protecting DNA from free radicals (which cause oxidative stress damage).